The structure of Aquaculture Division comprises with Fish and Shrimp Culture Section, Aquatic Animal Health and Disease Control Section, Freshwater Fish Research Section and Crocodile Farm. The main responsibilities of Aqua- culture Division are to produce good quality fish and prawn/shrimp seeds for fish farmers, to ensure replenishment of fish and prawn seeds into the natural water bodies such as rivers and lakes and men-made water bodies such as reservoirs and dams for enrichment of fisheries resources, to conduct researches of potential marine and fresh-water aquatic species for aquaculture development, to contribute and transfer of basic and applicable aquaculture technology to fish farmers and to conduct environment-friendly and sustainable aquaculture methods such as Good Aquaculture Practices to align with ASEAN Guidelines of Good Aquaculture Practices and EU market requirement.
Duty and function of Aquaculture Division
a. Producing of good quality fish and shrimp seeds by DoF fisheries stations,
b. To ensure conservation of fisheries or aquatic resources not to be depleted by the releasing of hatchery produced fish and shrimp seeds to natural water body,
c. Formal services of analyzing water and soil quality for fish pond
management and of diagnose the fish and shrimp diseases, giving guidance of disease control and prevention for fish farmers,
d. Monitoring, control and given good management and regulation on
e. Strengthening good management for the development of environment-
friendly aquaculture system and the encourage of cultured based capture fisheries to increase of fish production,
f. Issuing the amendments of aquaculture laws, legislation and regulation as the requirements of current situation,
g. Supervision of expertise for the establishment of short-term and/or long-term aquaculture development programs,
h. Data collecting, recording and analyzing on aquaculture areas and
fish and shrimp seeds production from DoF fisheries stations,
i. Applying the international and ASEAN guidelines (Good Aquaculture
Practices-GAqP) of sustainable aquaculture development compliance with Myanmar weather and environmental conditions,
j. Support to conduct trainings of basic fish farming and fish breeding technology for local fish farmers and capacity building of skillful technology and techniques of aquaculture systems,
k. Seeking the improved technologies of aquaculture and providing extension
and training for sustainable development and expanding of aquaculture
industry as a whole,
l. Implementing and managing to be able to fully imposing of revenue for aquaculture registration,
m. Regularly observing the aquaculture industry development as a
whole and recording and reporting the extraordinary phenomenon of climate change impacts on aquaculture industry and emerging fish diseases to prevent and adapt from these impacts.
In Myanmar, aquaculture areas have been increased from 30282 acres in
1990-1991 to 174293 acres in 2000-2001 and then to 443695 acres in 2010-
2011 and 491345 acres in 2017-2018. Aquaculture production has also increased steady annually from 6397 MT in 1990-1991 to 128225 MT in 2000-
2001 and 1048690 MT in 2016-2017. The production from aquaculture subsector increased to 1130350 MT in 2017-2018, which was an increase about 7.78 % compared to 2016-2017 production.
Currently over 20 species of freshwater fishes including common carp, Indian major carps, Chinese carps, Tilapia, Pangasius and walking catfishes and Pacu are being cultured. Rohu (Labeo rohita) withstands as the most common and commercial cultured species which is native to Myanmar. Actually the collection of fry and fingerlings has not been permitted so as to conserve and enhance the natural fish stocks. This is as a measure of follow- up of the Law Relating to Aquaculture that was promulgated in 1990. However in order to develop aquaculture particularly in production and productivity of quality fish seeds, hatchery concerned farmers are allowed to collect the fry and fingerlings prior to permission of DoF. As a result, rohu aquaculture industry becomes more developed and promising. In order to promote and distribute the quality fish seed, DoF has tried to upgrade the brood stocks quality by proper management through its 27 fishery stations that are conducting seed production and providing technical assistance to farmers.
The potential important freshwater fishes such as Heteropneustes fossilis (Catfish), Ompok bimaculatus (Sheat fish), Notopterus chitala (Spotted feather back), Cyprinus Intha (Nga phane),Trichogaster pectoralis (Snake skin gouramy), Pangasius bacourti (Stripped catfish), Prochilodus luneatus (Taung paw nga tha lott), Leptobarbus hoevenii (Sultan fish), Anabas testudineus (Climbing Perch) were successfully induced breeding by experimental scale.
In the field of aquaculture, a total of 48672 fish and shrimp farmers were involved in various aquaculture systems. Due to Myanmar's aquaculture is mainly based on pond cultured system, mostly men labours are working in fish/shrimp ponds. There are 57957 number of permanent men labours working in 2017-2018 fiscal year.
Fish Fry and Fingerling Production
In 2017-2018, 27 hatcheries owned by the Department of Fisheries had managed to produce a total of 631.16 million freshwater fish fry and fingerling whereas 37 private hatcheries around Myanmar had produced an impressive amount of 2462.83 million fry and fingerling.
Accordingly the Department of Fisheries replenishes the natural resources
by stocking the hatchery bred quality fish seeds into open waters like rivers, dams, reservoirs, lakes and impoundments. Data on production and stocking of seeds from 2010-2011 to 2017-2018 appears as a graph there under.
At the same time in order to increase fish production and supplementary income, Department also initiated the paddy cum fish farming in appropriate regions through demonstration 15208 acres of paddy field in States and Divisions were stocked with fish seed in 2017-2018.
Freshwater prawn culture
The most common and prioritized species is commercially important giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Monoculture of M. rosenbergii was conducted on semi-intensive level by a few farmers and productivity was better than polyculture system. Constraints of the availability of sufficient amount of fresh water prawn at local area, technical expertise of monoculture system, most of the prawn farmers are practiced the polyculture system stocked with fresh water prawn and fish to minimize the operational cost. There was total area of 8863.61 acres of prawn and fish polyculture farms in the whole country. Only few areas of prawn monoculture farms are registered. The hatchery operation and culture technique become well established in government and private sector. Recent year, many fish farmer's benefits from poly-culture of freshwater prawn and major carps due to reasonable price of freshwater prawn. Therefore, freshwater prawn seeds requirement is increasing in recent years. Many backyard hatcheries for freshwater prawn are being set up to fill up the gap of high demand freshwater prawn seeds but last year, most of the freshwater prawn hatcheries were encountered the low survival rate due to disease infection from the brood stock.
Penaeus monodon has been initiated since early 1980 practicing trap and hold method particularly in western coastal area. Natural post-larvae of Penaeus monodon were trapped into the pond during the high tide period through sluice gates. There were no inputs in terms of pond preparation, eradication of predators, water fertilization, feeding etc. However 70 to 123 kilograms of large size of shrimp per hectare of culture area were harvested. As the ponds were usually as large as 50 to 100 hectares, the shrimp production could make more than enough money for the shrimp farmers. Having no laws concerned with aquaculture, those shrimp ponds existed as illegal ponds up to 1990. In the year 2000, the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries reinforced and encouraged many potential investors to be involved in the shrimp aquaculture development. At the same time, the Union of Myanmar formed a State Level Committee to promote a drastic development of shrimp aquaculture industry by formulating first three-year plan from 2000 to 2003 and second plan from 2003 to 2005. Since 2000, a number of semi-intensive and intensive shrimp farming
emerged. Up to 2002, there was founded success and failure in semi-intensive and intensive shrimp culture. In the year 2002, a pilot demonstration on Mangrove Friendly Shrimp Culture was conducted as a measure of verification of semi-intensive shrimp culture technique through collaboration of Myanmar DoF and SEAFDEC-AQD. Demonstration pond with 1.4 ha and 0.72 totaling
2.12 ha could produce 11.1 metric ton of shrimp with average size of 50 pcs / kg. At the same time, private shrimp farms nearby the demonstration pond suffered failure due to severe occurrence of white spot disease. The private farmers were invited and disseminated the comprehensive technology. But they were not so much interested in MFA technology. Similar demonstration was repeated in 2005 and also gained the success. A few private shrimp farms applied the MFA technology with success but later due to market and shrimp price constraints shrimp farming has been done only by a few farmers.
As of 2017-2018 Myanmar have three types of shrimp farming: Semi-
intensive shrimp ponds 24536.29 hectares, Extensive plus shrimp ponds
61059.63 hectares and Extensive or traditional shrimp ponds 169818.54 hectares totaling 235474.46 hectares. The total production of fresh water prawn and marine shrimp in 2017-2018 were 35694.20 MT. Recently, the Department of Fisheries encouraged to development of fish and shrimp culture in every states and regions for self-sufficient of local consumption and increasing for export market.
Status of Shrimp Hatcheries
In the year 2000, total numbers of shrimp hatcheries amounted to 13 only and in 2003 altogether 26 shrimp hatcheries (include in Backyard Hatcheries) were fully operating with capacity of 190 million shrimp post-larvae. Hatchery system is mainly based on clear water system. The breeders are available from Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea. It is well famous that the brood stocks from Andaman Sea are supreme in terms of quality and size. However, recent years, many hatcheries including private and public are facing the difficulties of the availability of the sufficient amount of shrimp brood stocks when required. Therefore, local shrimp hatcheries could not produce sufficient amount of shrimp seeds for local demand and shrimp post larva had to import from neighboring countries such as Thailand and Bangladesh. Import numbers of shrimp larva from Bangladesh was not yet available. In 2017-2018, tiger shrimp, freshwater prawn and white shrimp larva was imported in the amount of 57.99 million from Thailand.
White shrimp culture
Penaeus vannamei has the many advantageous factors for culture but it may also cause the negative impact to other shrimp aquaculture industry. DOF has been aware that P. vannamei may carry and outbreak the Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV). After a regional workshop in 2005 at Manila, that assessed the culture of P. vannamei ASEAN countries agreed to culture at reasonable documentation. At present 3-4 private farms are culturing of experimental scale of P. vannamei. Only PCR negative the Pacific white shrimp SPF P. vannamei seeds has been permitted to import for culture in domestic water. In 2017-2018, the total numbers of 61.58 million P. vannamei larva were imported. Recently, the most prominent development of White Shrimp culture is in Tanintharyi Region at Pyay Pho Tun Co. Ltd. Pyay Phyo Tun Co., Ltd initiated the white shrimp farming in 2016 and increasingly invested for more production of white shrimp farming for more production. In 2017, the company produced 1334.936 Metric ton of white shrimp and 1006.194 MT in 2018.
Marine Finfish Culture
In terms of marine fin-fish farming, seabass, red snapper and grouper are the most common and commercial species in Myanmar. Stock fish or the fish seed are usually collected from the wild. But the seed production technology of seabass has been succeeding since 2004 in both DoF and private sectors. First the broodstocks were collected from the wild and later induced breedseabass are used as broodstocks. However the grow-out culture of seabass is done by only a few farmers. It is due to the fact that adequate supply of sea- bass seeds, trash fish and formulated feed is inconsistent. Induced breeding of Grouper spp., was also conducting at Marine Research Station of DoF, Tanintharyi region by experimental scale but survival rate is very low
Others aquatic species such as oyster, clam, seaweed culture are initial stage in Myanmar. The farming of Eucheuma Seaweed has been started since 2003 through the collaboration of DoF, a Korean private company. The Korean company brought in the seaweed of Eucheuma cottonii and domesticated as the seed stock for other private farmers. Upon the whole, DoF Myanmar is carefully assessing in the promotion of proper new stock strains to produce better quality seed.
Recently, Make Smart Company has already constructed a processing plant and storage building. The new endeavor will create employment opportunity for local people and also technology transfer to the local entrepreneurs and communities. The production of dried seaweed in 2017-2018 was 30.722 tons.
Mud crab seed production
Mud crab fattening has become the booming industry as domestic consumption and export demand are growing rapidly. Soft shelled mud crab farming has become very popular as it commands high price. At the same time, supply of crab juveniles from nature is decreasing due to over exploitation, habitat deterioration caused by man impact and world climate change. Adequate supply of mud crab seed for soft shell mud crab farming has become urgent need and included in the future plan. Myanmar DoF has initiated the mud crab hatchery since 2009. However hatchery operation performs very low survival rate. There needs to do more research and extension work for dissemination of mud crab culture techniques to local small scale farmers and conservation of mud crab resources as setting up the protected area of no crab fishing zone or conservation of mud crab habitats such as mangrove.
Cold Water Species Aquaculture
Some cold water aquatic species naturally exist in the northern most part of the country where temperature is very low. DoF is established a backyard hatchery for breeding of potentially important local indigenous fish species since
2012 and for dissemination of basic fish culture technology to the local ethnic group.
The ornamental fish industry is one of the main sectors to generate income through export. The production of ornamental fish was 1.2 million pieces and US$ 0.17 in 2017-2018.
Promote aquaculture as an integrated rural development activity within multiple use of land and water resources available through inter - agency coordination in policy formulation, project planning and implementation, stakeholder consultation, extension services and technology transfer. One of the national policy is the poverty alleviation and to carry out rural development through agriculture and other sectors. Actually about 70 percent of the country people are living in country -side and remote areas. JICA incorporated and collaborated with DoF by establishing JICA unit at DoF and started its project plan in
2005. The strategic project plan is firstly conducting on-site training at appropriate areas to the villagers on small-scale aquaculture. Then secondly it implemented demonstration based on self-participatory approach. Thirdly JICA provides 70 percent of the cost for village level community farming that shared 30 percent. Profit sharing basis is to keep 50 percent for next operation, 20 percent for donation to the near by school or village clinic and 30 percent is to share for community members. The first phase of JICA project completed in 2013 June. Based on evaluation of effectiveness and capacity needs, JICA is now continued projects from 2014 March in Dry Zone Myanmar. Moreover, ACIAR, KOICA also supporting and cooperation with DoF for improving research & development of Myanmar's Inland & coastal fisheries.
Fisheries sector of evergreen village development project supported 30 million kyats as revolving fund for each villages of 375 villages where have potential to develop in fisheries sector in 15 Regions and States in this fiscal year from the funding sources of government's capital budget and Department of Fisheries will try the best to achieve the objective of the development of fisheries sector for rural people. In addition, Department of Fisheries constructed
122 numbers of fish backyard hatcheries at 15 different Regions and States in
2015-16 fiscal year for conducting self-breeding practice of fish to fulfill the needs of fish fry from rural fish farmers, for stock enhancement of fish seeds to creeks between paddy fields and for improvement of the production of fish seeds to conduct the cultured based capture fisheries at leasable fisheries. Application of Good Aquaculture Practices (GAqP)
The Department of Fisheries of Myanmar already initiated Good
Aquaculture Practices as national standard in fish and shrimp farming since 2011. The Department of Fisheries established Extension Team for implementation of GAqP application in Myanmar and considered to follow up and practices on ASEAN's Standard on GAqP for shrimp farming in compliance with the current status of shrimp farming practice in Myanmar. Myanmar learns and tries to follow the Strategies Plan on the Development and Implementation of ASEAN shrimp GAqP. Support to GAqP, DoF established the Directives and Regulation for prohibiting the use of chemical in aquaculture.
The Department of Fisheries has issued GAqP certificates on 3376.82 hectares for 5 farmers during last year. For the trade promotion of the aquaculture products, EU gave the awareness training of GAqP,(18) times for capacity building of DoF staff and stakeholders.
Aquaculture support services
In 2017-2018, the coordinating plan of Aquaculture Division, Regional and State of DOF and the fish hatcheries stations will support to fish farmers for providing breeders and technical advices to small-scale farmers for poverty reduction and rural development at the township level. Under supervision of aquaculture division, aquatic animal health and disease control section and Freshwater fish research section formed (3)groups of Mobile Team giving on-site support services for fish farmers who want to check their ponds water/soil parameters and health condition of their cultured fish for preventing the fish disease and farm management. In addition, Aquatic animal health and disease control section also provides PCR check on shrimp diseases of shrimp seeds for shrimp farmers. In 2017-2018, Freshwater fish research section gave services of water quality analysis on 447 cases and soil analyses on 4 cases including Tuntay Lab and Mandalay Regional Lab. Aquatic animal health and disease control section provided support services of on-site field analyses on
25 cases, lab disease analysis on 207 cases and PCR check for disease on 162 cases.
Freshwater Aquaculture Research and Extension Centre
Collaboration between Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation and KOICA had established Freshwater Aquaculture Research and Extension Centre from 2014 to 2018 under the project of “Development of Inland Fish Farming Technology in Myanmar” and the Centre was opened on 19-1-2018. Moreover, it had conducted “Training for Advanced
Inland Fish Farming Technology” from 8-1-2018 to 2-2-2018 to conduct training for farmers, to research with Universities by utilization this Centre. The project is extended to 2018 December. By implementing this Freshwater Aquaculture Research and Extension Center, from experience of Korea and Myanmar, human resources and technical support, it will improve modern technology in freshwater aquaculture sector and this Centre is the first research Centre in Myanmar